YOGA AND ALCHEMY 211 the pill region below. Wait until you can no longer hold the breath and then let it out gradually, taking care to make it absolutely noise- less. After an even respiration has been established, turn your tongue about inside the mouth to stimulate the circulation of saliva, but do not swallow it. Repeat the above three times. After the third expelling of the breath, swallow the saliva while bending your head, and send it down to the pill region with some force, so that the saliva goes down with a gurgle. Repeat this again three times so that you swallow the saliva three times in nine periods of hold- ing the breath. Then rub with both hands the inside of the arch of your feet, the pill region, and the back and the waist until they feel hot. Massage slowly without quickening your breath, but you may perspire slightly. Then massage your eyes and ears and face and neck with both hands until they are very hot, and rub down the right and left of your nose five to seven times. Comb your hair over a hundred times and lie down with the hair untied, and sleep until dawn." The swallowing of saliva is based upon the following physiological speculations, which are closely connected with Taoist cosmogony of Five Elements, and sound to us fantastic. But to a believer in this cosmogony it made sense. In his "Second Essay on Conservatism of 3bafe", one of the most difficult essays to read intelligently, Su Tungpo Interpreted satisfactorily an extremely difficult ancient passage about "making the dragon in the body come up through the fire" and "the Itiger in the body go down through the water". Su Tungpo observed liat we are burning up energy all the time, mainly in two forms: (i) •fire, which includes all emotional disturbances, such as anger, chagrin, love, sorrow, etc., and (2) water, which includes perspiration, tears, and excreta. In Taoist cosmogony the element of fire is represented by the term "tiger", while the element of water is represented by the term "dragon". The organ representing or controlling fire is the heart, while the organ representing the water principle is the kidneys. According to Su Tungpo, fire represents the righteous spirit; therefore, when a man's heart is in control of the body, his actions tend to be jgood. On the other hand, a man tends to become immoral if his -functions are controlled by the kidneys, which in Chinese usage of the word include the sexual organs.* When the kidneys take control of trie body, then we are subject to all kinds of animal desires: then "the dragon comes out in the water", which means destruction of our vital spirit. In another direction, we are subject to other emotional dis- * The Chinese Taoists cultivated, among other secret arts, the art of love- making and some claimed extraordinary sexual vigor. They believed in stimulation of sex hormones plus mental control. In Tongpo's circle, Chang Lei was the one who believed in it.